Capitalism has always been using the commons. Expropriating the commons through enclosures / primitive accumulation / accumulation by dispossession, but also extracting them from the collective labour of worker during the production process. This means that capitalism has used them and has learnt how to use and how to absorb the commons within its system. Today we face a big emphasis on the concept of the commons that comes from a long-term emphasis on the concept of collaboration: collaborative economy, collaborative governance, collaborative practices. Thus, a couple of questions arise.
What are exactly the commons and how can we interpret them?
If we consider the commons as an expression of the exodus of civil society from capitalism, how can we prevent their expropriation and absorption by and in the capitalist system itself?
Or shall we just consider the commons as a mitigate and a mellow expression of capitalism to accept one of its stark and critical evolution which is the neoliberal regime?